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When used by faculty in a strategic instructional design, clickers can raise the level of participation and the effectiveness of interaction, promote engagement of students in active learning, foster communication to clarify misunderstanding and incorrect thinking, and provide a method to instructionally embed assessment as a learning activity rather than reliance on the traditional approach of summative assessment for assigning grades. 

Use of classroom “clickers” to promote acquisition of advanced reasoning skills, Nurse Education in Practice, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 76-87, G.DEBOURGH



Best Practices for Implementing Clickers in the Classroom*


Best Practices from UW Madison


From Educase Quarterly November 2007

1. Keep slides short to optimize legibility.
2. Keep the number of answer options to five.
3. Do not make the questions overly complex.
4. Keep voting straightforward—systems allow complex branching, but keep it simple.

5. Allow sufficient time for students to answer questions. Some general guidelines:

Classes of fewer than 30 students: 15–20 seconds per question

Classes of 30 to 100 students: 30 seconds per question

Classes of more than 100 students: 1 minute per question

6. Allow time for discussion between questions.
7. Encourage active discussion with the audience.
8. Do not ask too many questions; use them for the key points.
9. Position the questions at periodic intervals throughout the presentation.
10. Include an "answer now" prompt to differentiate between lecture slides and interactive polling slides.
11. Use a "correct answer" indicator to visually identify the appropriate answer.
12. Include a "response grid" so that students know their responses have registered.
13. Increase responsiveness by using a "countdown timer" that will close polling after a set amount of time.
14. Test the system in the proposed location to identify technical issues (lighting, signal interference, etc.)
15. On the actual day of the session, allow time to set out clickers and start system.
16. Rehearse actual presentation to make sure it will run smoothly.
17. Provide clear instructions on how to use the clickers to the audience.
18. Do not overuse the system or it will lose its "engagement" potential.
* Tips 1–5, 14–16, and 18 came from Robertson; tips 6–9 and 17 from Duncan; and tips 10–13 from Turning Point Technologies.

Importing Student Names from Excel

(which have been extracted from Mojave or other Student List)  


Youtube  Download video CPS Names import Tucson Hi.wmv


Classroom Application (adapted and inspired by Vanderbilt University) 


Continuum of Questions Types of Activities

·         Factual Questions

·         Conceptual Questions

·         One-Best-Answer Questions

      Opinion Questions

·         Data Gathering Questions

·         Questions Asking for Predictions

        Higher Order Thinking

·         Games

     Feedback on Teaching


Great Examples of Classroom Questions modified to the different levels of Bloom's revised Taxonomy

·         Attendance

·         Summative Assessment

·         Formative Assessment.

·         Homework Collection.

·         Discussion Warm-Up

·         Contingent Teaching 

·         Peer Instruction

·         Repeated Questions

·         Question-Driven Instruction

·         "Choose Your Own Adventure"

Designing Questions (Ohio State University)

  • Knowledge - Remembering facts, terms, concepts, definitions, principles
  • Comprehension - Explaining/interpreting the meaning of material
  • Application - Using a concept or principle to solve a problem
  • Analysis - Breaking material down into its component parts to see interrelationships/hierarchy of ideas
  • Synthesis - Producing something new or original from component parts
  • Evaluation - Making a judgment based on a pre-established set of criteria


Mixing Traditional Participation with Clickers  (limitations of simple questions)


Introduction to Classroom Usage (video from UT)

Teaching Ideas

User Forum - Resources & Sharing

User Community & Websites

User Guide: An Instructors Guide to the Effective Use of Personal Response Systems in Teaching



Research Information:




Help! & User Guides (.pdfs)

User Guide for Mac

Quick Course User Guide

CPS 1.5 Training Workbook



from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J . Pickering, Jane E. Pollock, MCREL, 2001.

Summary of Research on Providing Feedback
  • Feedback should be "corrective" in nature by explaiing to students what they are doing correctly and incorrectly.
  • Feedback should be timely.
  • Feedback should be specific to a criterion.
  • Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback.

Classroom Practice in Providing Feedback

  • Criterion-reference feedback is superior to norm-referenced feedback.
  • Focus feedback on specific types of knowledge and skill.
  • Student-led feedback has many desirable effects.



CPS Clickers Basics

Creating Lessons

Managing Folders

Writing Questions

Importing Images


Fast Grade

Exam View & Text CDs

Importing Classlists



Testing Responders


"Team Activities" - allows students to answer different questions at the same time











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